White Papers

Design
Materials
3-D Metal Printing
Advanced Processes
Firearm
Automotive
Industrial
Medical
Design

Design Whitepapers, How to design your component for the MIM process

APP’s State-of-the-art MIM technologies have dramatically increased MIM component utilization in many applications. Learn how to design for APP’s MIM process.

Materials

Materials Whitepapers, How to select the right material for your application

APP’s State-of-the-Art MIM materials capabilities have dramatically increased MIM component utilization in many applications. Learn how to select the right alloy for your application.

3-D Metal Printing

3-D Metal Printing Whitepapers, Is 3-D metal printing right for you?

APP’s State-of-the-Art 3-D metal printing technologies will change metal printing from single run offs to a viable high volume manufacturing method. Learn how APP’s printing technology is different and how you can more quickly and economically introduce your products to market.

Advanced Processes

Advanced Processes Whitepapers, Do you have an idea and think powder metal can help?

APP’s State-of-the-art powder metal processing technologies have solved many application challenges. Learn about some non-traditional processing technologies and find a solution to your application challenge.

Firearm

Firearm MIM Whitepapers, Do you manufacture firearms and have a unique requirement?

APP’s MIM technologies have increased MIM component utilization in many firearm applications. Learn if MIM is the right technology for your firearm.

Automotive

Automotive MIM Whitepapers, Is MIM right for your automotive application?

APP’s MIM technologies are ideal for some but not all automotive applications.  Learn if MIM is the right technology for your automotive application.

Industrial

Industrial MIM Whitepapers, Do you manufacture industrial systems and have a unique requirement?

APP’s MIM technologies have increased MIM component utilization in many industrial applications. Learn if MIM is the right technology for your industrial application.

Medical

Medical MIM Whitepapers, Do you manufacture medical devices and have a unique requirement?

APP’s MIM technologies are used in both evasive and non-evasive medical applications. Learn how MIM can be utilized for your medical device application.

This paper will:

bullet-yellow Help you design MIM components right the first time

bullet-yellow Decrease time between design and approved functional components

Design:

Qualification Method Powder Injection Molded Components

The PIM process produces net-shape or near netshape parts at a reduced manufacturing cost; however, significant process and product qualification is required to ensure that the final product is acceptable. The level of qualification depends upon the end use of the product. It could be as simple as making a prototype part or as complicated as characterizing and controlling the entire process. As a rule, medical and aerospace products require the greatest amount of qualification and less critical products such as tools and consumer products require the least. In this paper, a guideline is presented to qualify a PIM process that meets a final specification at a minimum cost. A rationale for choosing only the most critical process control methods is presented.

First Name*
Last Name*
Your Email*

Materials:

The effect of nickel on the mechanical behavior of molybdenum P/M steels

This study has examined the effects of nickel alloying additions on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of Fe–xNi–0.85Mo–0.4C-base steels that were powder processed using double-press double-sinter processing to maximize density. The steels were examined in the as-processed condition as well as in a quench-and-temper heat treated condition. Tensile behavior indicates that while
nickel content (at levels of 2,4, and 6%) increased tensile strength in the as-sintered condition, it did not significantly affect tensile strength in the quenched and tempered condition. In both conditions increasing Ni content decreased elongation to fracture. The 4% Ni steel, which tended to have the smallest maximum pore size, also exhibited the greatest fatigue strength.

First Name*
Last Name*
Your Email*

Mechanical Properties of Metal Injection Moulded 316L Stainless Steel Using Both Prealloy and Master Alloy Techniques

Stainless steel 316L is one of the most commonly metal injection moulded alloys. Its popularity results from its sinterability to high densities and its corrosion resistance. Typical applications consist of consumer products such as eyeglasses, watchcases and medical devices. Since this alloy is accepted for metal injection moulding, much study of the properties as a function of process parameters and raw materials has been performed. Gas atomised, water atomised, prealloyed, master alloyed and powder size are some of the powder characteristics that have been evaluated. The prealloy technique utilises atomised powders that are of exactly the same chemistry as the final component. The master alloy technique utilises alloyed enriched atomised powders that are

First Name*
Last Name*
Your Email*

Metal Injection Molding of Co-28Cr-6Mo

materials selectionMetal injection molding of gas- and water-atomized Co-28Cr- 6Mo powders is evaluated. Sintering is conducted in different atmospheres to evaluate their effects on sintering response and carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen contents. The effects of hot isostatic pressing and heat treat on the mechanical properties are investigated. Properties are correlated to the interstitial content and microstructure. Optimized processing gives mechanical properties that exceed ASTM requirements for cast and wrought Co-28Cr-6Mo.

First Name*
Last Name*
Your Email*

3-D Metal Printing:

Printalloy® 3-D Metal Powder Printing – Initial Capabilities

Donald F. Heaney, 10/27/15

PrintedPartsAPP has developed a 3-D metal powder printing technology and is able to produce low cost metal components that meet the metallurgical properties of MPIF Standard 35 for metal injection molding. We can successfully manufacture 100s of components in less than 48 hours. Our focus to date has been to determine the machine parameters to produce different geometries and to evaluate the metallurgy of the produced components. We have also done an initial dimensional capability study.

First Name*
Last Name*
Your Email*

Advanced Processes:

Defect-free Sintering of Two Material Powder Injection Molded Components (Part I)

Two Material powder injection molding (PIM) is a recently developed method to manufacture functionally graded components. This paper describes and experimental technique to determine the suitability of the two materials to be combined via PIM. This is accomplished by comparing the individual shrinkage versus temperature behavior of the candidate systems. The concepts are validated by two material PIM, sintering, and subsequent microstructural observation. Two materials are compatible for two material powder injection molding provided they form a metallurgical bond and the sintering response of the material mimics the other. An extensive difference in sintering shrinkage, especially during the initial state of sintering, results in defects such as cracks and delamination. Success of theses concepts is elucidated by two material PIM of tool steel and boron doped austenitic stainless steel.

First Name*
Last Name*
Your Email*

Defect-free Sintering of Two Material Powder Injection Molded Components (Part II)

A defect free, two-material component can be obtained via co-sintering by suitably altering the powder characteristics or compositions, as demonstrated in part I. In this paper, a model to ascertain the suitability of material systems to be co-sintered without defects such as delamination or interface pores is presented. The model is based on the management of the stress induced due to the difference in shrinkage and the analysis of the in situ strength of the weaker material during sintering. Tool steel in combination with stainless steel admixed with boron and Fe-2Ni admixed with boron are two systems used to validate the model. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with the observations.

First Name*
Last Name*
Your Email*

Isotropic Forming of Porous Structures via Metal Injection Molding

Porous 316L stainless steel structures have been fabricated via metal injection molding (MIM) for both water- and gas-atomized powders. The metal injection molding process offers the unique ability to produce net-shape parts with homogenous porosity, pore structure, and permeability. In this study, porous MIM structures were analyzed for porosity, pore size, permeability, and thermal conductivity as a function of powder type and processing conditions. A typical MIM powder (<20 µm) processed at 50 volume % loading in a binder system produced a uniform pore structure with a permeability of less than 1·10-13 m 2 and a maximum pore radius of less than 5 µm . Water-atomized powder proved to be better suited for low-solids-loading metal injection molding (<50vol% loading) since its interparticle friction provided greater strength and fewer defects during the molding and debinding process steps. Measurements of thermal conductivity show that the water-atomized powder had less thermal conductivity (~2 W/m-K) than the gas-atomized powder (~3 W/m-K).

First Name*
Last Name*
Your Email*